Microbiology

Bharat Education Trust, Rasana-Mota

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Microbiology

Microbiologists can solve the problems caused by microbes, or exploit their abilities, they have to find out how microbes work. They can then use this knowledge to prevent or treat disease, develop new technologies and improve our lives in general. Microbiologists are essential in helping us to treat diseases.


The branches of microbiology can be classified into pure and applied sciences.

Pure microbiology

1.     Bacteriology: the study of bacteria

2.     Mycology: the study of fungi

3.     Protozoology: the study of protozoa

4.     Phycology/algology: the study of algae

5.     Parasitology: the study of parasites

6.     Immunology: the study of the immune system

7.     Virology: the study of viruses

8      Nematology: the study of nematodes

9Microbial cytology: the study of microscopic and submicroscopic details of microorganisms

10.Microbial physiology: the study of how the microbial cell functions biochemically. Includes the study of microbial growth, microbial metabolism and microbial cell structure

11.Microbial ecology: the relationship between microorganisms and their environment

12.Microbial genetics: the study of how genesare organized and regulated in microbes in relation to their cellular functions Closely related to the field of molecular biology

13. Cellular microbiology: a discipline bridging microbiology and cell biology

14.Evolutionary microbiology: the study of the evolution of microbes. This field can be subdivided into:

a.     Microbial taxonomy: the naming and classification of microorganisms

b. Microbial systematics: the study of the diversity and genetic relationship of microorganisms

15.Generation microbiology: the study of those microorganisms that have the same characters as their parents

16. Systems microbiology: a discipline bridging systems biology and microbiology.

17.Molecular microbiology: the study of the molecular principles of the physiological processes in microorganisms

18.  Phylogeny: the study of the genetic relationships between different organisms.

 Applied microbiology

19.   Medical microbiology: the study of the pathogenic microbes and the role of microbes in human illness. Includes the study of microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology and is related to the study of disease pathology and immunology. This area of microbiology also covers the study of human microbiotacancer, and the tumor microenvironment.

20.   Pharmaceutical microbiology: the study of microorganisms that are related to the production of antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, vaccines, and other pharmaceutical products and that cause pharmaceutical contamination and spoil.

21.   Industrial microbiology: the exploitation of microbes for use in industrial processes. Examples include industrial fermentationand wastewater treatment. Closely linked to the biotechnology industry. This field also includes brewing, an important application of microbiology.

22. Microbial biotechnology: the manipulation of microorganisms at the genetic and molecular level to generate useful products.

23.Food microbiology: the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage and foodborne illness. Using microorganisms to produce foods, for example by fermentation.

24.Agricultural microbiology: the study of agriculturally relevant microorganisms. This field can be further classified into the following:

a. Plant microbiology and Plant pathology: The study of the interactions between microorganisms and plants and plant pathogens.

b. Soil microbiology: the study of those microorganisms that are found in soil.

25. Veterinary microbiology: the study of the role of microbes in veterinary medicine or animal taxonomy.

26. Environmental microbiology: the study of the function and diversity of microbes in their natural environments. This involves the characterization of key bacterial habitats such as the rhizosphere and phyllospheresoil and groundwaterecosystems, open oceans or extreme environments (extremophiles). This field includes other branches of microbiology such as:

a.     Microbial ecology

b.     Microbially mediated nutrient cycling

c.      Geomicrobiology

d.     Microbial diversity

e.     Bioremediation: use of micro-organisms to clean air, water and soils.

27. Water microbiology (or aquatic microbiology): The study of those microorganisms that are found in water.

28.   Aeromicrobiology (or air microbiology): The study of airborne microorganisms.

29.    biotechnology: related to recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering.


Syllabus Of  Microbiology